SJENICA.com forum


If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below.



Vijesti iz ostatka svijeta balkan, dijaspora, ma sve što je vezano za našu planetu zanimljivo treba smestiti ovde...

Reply
Old 06-06-2011   #1
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Thumbs up what have i done to deserve Africa


what have i done to deserve black diamond Africa,





__________________
i am nice,.. simple and excessive,..

etich and legal norms for Intelligence and national Future - my people of The Turkish Otoman Kingdom
Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links

Old 06-06-2011   #2
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #3
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Thumbs up Afrika part I.

Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation).

Africa Area 30,221,532 km2 (11,668,598.7 sq mi) Population 1,000,010,000[1] (2005, 2nd) Pop. density 30.51/km2 (about 80/sq mi) Demonym African Countries 54 (List of countries) Dependencies
List[show]

Languages List of languages Time Zones UTC-1 to UTC+4 Largest cities List of cities Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km˛ (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area.[2] With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table) in 61 territories, it accounts for about 14.72% of the world's human population.
The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent has 54 sovereign states, including Madagascar and various island groups.
Africa, particularly central eastern Africa, is widely regarded within the scientific community to be the origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[3]
Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[4] The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.[5]
Contents

[hide]
Etymology

Afri was the name of several Semitic peoples who dwelt in North Africa near Carthage (in modern Tunisia). Their name is usually connected with Phoenician afar, "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis[6] has asserted that it stems from a Berber word ifri or Ifran meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[7] Africa or Ifri or Afer[7] is name of Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania (Berber Tribe of Yafran).[8]
Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of Africa Province, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Roman suffix "-ca" denotes "country or land".[9] The later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, also preserved a form of the name.
Other etymological hypotheses that have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa":
  • the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Ant. 1.15) asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya.
  • Latin word aprica ("sunny") mentioned by Isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
  • the Greek word aphrike (Αφρική), meaning "without cold." This was proposed by historian Leo Africanus (1488–1554), who suggested the Greek word phrike (φρίκη, meaning "cold and horror"), combined with the privative prefix "a-", thus indicating a land free of cold and horror.
  • Massey, in 1881, derived an etymology from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace."[10]
  • yet another hypothesis was proposed by Michčle Fruyt in Revue de Philologie 50, 1976: 221–238, linking the Latin word with africus 'south wind', which would be of Umbrian origin and mean originally 'rainy wind'.
The Irish female name Aifric is sometimes anglicised as Africa, but the given name is unrelated to the geonym.
Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #4
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

Etymology

Afri was the name of several Semitic peoples who dwelt in North Africa near Carthage (in modern Tunisia). Their name is usually connected with Phoenician afar, "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis[6] has asserted that it stems from a Berber word ifri or Ifran meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[7] Africa or Ifri or Afer[7] is name of Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania (Berber Tribe of Yafran).[8]
Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of Africa Province, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Roman suffix "-ca" denotes "country or land".[9] The later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, also preserved a form of the name.
Other etymological hypotheses that have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa":
  • the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Ant. 1.15) asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya.
  • Latin word aprica ("sunny") mentioned by Isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
  • the Greek word aphrike (Αφρική), meaning "without cold." This was proposed by historian Leo Africanus (1488–1554), who suggested the Greek word phrike (φρίκη, meaning "cold and horror"), combined with the privative prefix "a-", thus indicating a land free of cold and horror.
  • Massey, in 1881, derived an etymology from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace."[10]
  • yet another hypothesis was proposed by Michčle Fruyt in Revue de Philologie 50, 1976: 221–238, linking the Latin word with africus 'south wind', which would be of Umbrian origin and mean originally 'rainy wind'.
The Irish female name Aifric is sometimes anglicised as Africa, but the given name is unrelated to the geonym.
History

Main article: History of Africa
Further information: History of North Africa, History of West Africa, History of Central Africa, History of East Africa, and History of Southern Africa
Paleohistory


The African prosauropod Massospondylus.


At the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, Africa was joined with Earth's other continents in Pangaea.[11] Africa shared the supercontinent's relatively uniform fauna which was dominated by theropods, prosauropods and primitive ornithischians by the close of the Triassic period.[11] Late Triassic fossils are found through-out Africa, but are more common in the south than north.[11] The boundary separating the Triassic and Jurassic marks the advent of an extinction event with global impact, although African strata from this time period have not been thoroughly studied.[11]
Early Jurassic strata are distributed in a similar fashion to Late Triassic beds, with more common outcrops in the south and less common fossil beds which are predominated by tracks to the north.[11] As the Jurassic proceeded, larger and more iconic groups of dinosaurs like sauropods and ornithopods proliferated in Africa.[11] Middle Jurassic strata are neither well represented nor well studied in Africa.[11] Late Jurassic strata are also poorly represented apart from the spectacular Tendaguru fauna in Tanzania.[11] The Late Jurassic life of Tendaguru is very similar to that found in western North America's Morrison Formation.[11]
Midway through the Mesozoic, about 150–160 million years ago, Madagascar separated from Africa, although it remained connected to India and the rest of the Gondwanan landmasses.[11] Fossils from Madagascar include abelisaurs and titanosaurs.[11]

The African theropod Spinosaurus was the largest known carnivorous dinosaur.


Later into the Early Cretaceous epoch, the India-Madagascar landmass separated from the rest of Gondwana.[11] By the Late Cretaceous, Madagascar and India had permanently split ways and continued until later reaching their modern configurations.[11]
By contrast to Madagascar, mainland Africa was relatively stable in position through-out the Mesozoic.[11] Despite the stable position, major changes occurred to its relation to other landmasses as the remains of Pangea continued to break apart.[11] By the beginning of the Late Cretaceous epoch South America had split off from Africa, completing the southern half of the Atlantic Ocean.[11] This event had a profound effect on global climate by altering ocean currents.[11]
During the Cretaceous, Africa was populated by allosauroids and spinosaurids, including the largest known carnivorous dinosaurs.[11] Titanosaurs were significant herbivores in its ancient ecosystems.[11] Cretaceous sites are more common than Jurassic ones, but are often unable to be dated radiometrically making it difficult to know their exact ages.[11] Paleontologist Louis Jacobs, who spent time doing field work in Malawi,[citation needed] says that African beds are "in need of more field work" and will prove to be a "fertile ground ... for discovery."[11]
Pre-history


Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered on November 24, 1974, in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression


Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent.[12][13] During the middle of the 20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago. Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9–3.0 million years BC),[14] Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million years BC)[15] and Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 million–600,000 years BC) have been discovered.[2]
Throughout humanity's prehistory, Africa (like all other continents) had no nation states, and was instead inhabited by groups of hunter-gatherers such as the Khoi and San.[16][17][18]
At the end of the Ice Ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa[citation needed]. However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC the Sahara region was becoming increasingly dry and hostile. The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa, and increasingly during the last 200 years, in Ethiopia.
The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gathering cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC cattle were already domesticated in North Africa.[19] In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals including the donkey, and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia. In the year 4000 BC the climate of the Sahara started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace.[20] This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.[20]
By the first millennium BC ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa and quickly spread across the Sahara into the northern parts of sub-Saharan Africa[21] and by 500 BC metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn't begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia and Ethiopia dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that trans-saharan tr
Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #5
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #6
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #7
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default hello Afrika




Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #8
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default Born In Africa



Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #9
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default




Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #10
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

U Africi gore 4 muslimanske zemlje u ratnim sukobima.,
a mnoge su muchene gladju, zhedju,.. i ponizavajucim zhivotnim uvjetima.

Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #11
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default Somalia

allAfrica.com: Topical Focus Page: Somalia: Children Bear the Brunt of Conflict







Manoocher Deghati/IRIN
Children play outside at an internally displaced persons camp in Arare, southern Somalia.



Somalia: Under-Fives Make Up Almost Half of Mogadishu Casualties (news)
UN Integrated Regional Information Networks
31 May 2011


Hundreds of children younger than five have been wounded in the latest round of fighting in Mogadishu, Somalia's capital, accounting for almost half of all trauma cases in May, according to the UN ... [read more]



The United Nations envoy for children and armed conflict today deplored the rapid rise in the recruitment of children by armed groups in Somalia, as well as an emerging trend of girls being forced ...
Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 06-06-2011   #12
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

Gbagbo Urges Supporters To seek Peace, Rebuilding Ivory Coast


Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 07-06-2011   #13
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 27-07-2011   #14
Jabuka Divljaka
Registrovan
Početnik
 
Jabuka Divljaka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: Vocnjak Reflection's,...dijaspora
Godine: 50
Posts: 688
Default

BBC NEWS | In Pictures | Africa in pictures: 20-27 April
Jabuka Divljaka is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Bookmarks

Tags
africa, deserve


Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Rate This Thread
Rate This Thread:

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 19:54. Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2020, vBulletin Solutions, Inc. www.SJENICA.com






Prijatelji sajta:
Parovi rijaliti uzivo - FOLKOTEKA.com - SJENICA.net - Freestring - FOLKOTEKA.org - Sve o pametnim telefonima - Besplatni mali Oglasi - MixoTeka.org - Tekstovi pesama - Najbolji domaci recepti - FOLKOTEKIN forum - Restoran SREM (Novi Beograd)